Marco Polo's death was reported on History.Info His Death - the travels of marco poloMarco Polo - HISTORY

Marco Polo was a Venetian from September 15, 1254 to January 8, 1324).His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo, a book that describes the mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world.[5]

Marco's father and uncle, Niccol and Maffeo, traveled through Asia and met Kublai Khan.They went back to Venice to meet Marco for the first time.The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, exploring many places along the Silk Road.The royal court of Kublai Khan was impressed by Marco's intelligence and humility.Marco was sent to many diplomatic missions throughout the empire and Southeast Asia as Khan's foreign emissary.Marco traveled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years and seeing many things that had previously been unknown to Europeans.The Mongol princess Kkchin was accompanied by the Polos to Persia.After leaving the princess, they traveled overland to Constantinople and then to Venice.Venice was at war with Genoa and Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to his cellmate, Rustichello da Pisa.He married and had three children after being released from prison.He was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice.

Marco Polo was the first European to visit China and left a detailed chronicle of his experience.The first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, paper money, and some Asian plants and exotic animals was found in this account of the Orient.Christopher Columbus was inspired by his travel book.The introduction of the Fra Mauro map was influenced by Polo's writings.

Marco Polo was born in Venice.Marco's father left his pregnant mother in Venice in order to travel to Asia with his brother Maffeo Polo.In order to visit their household in Venice, they returned to Italy from Negropont.Nicolas discovered that his wife was dead and that she had left behind her son, Marco, who was fifteen years old.It was [13].

Marco Polo was a great uncle who lent money and commanded a ship in Costantinople.Marco's grandfather lived in Venice and had three sons: Marco "the older", Matteo e Niccol.Polo's ancestors were thought to be of far Dalmatian origin.[16, 17 and 18]

Marco Polo is often referred to in the archives of the Republic of Venice as Marco Paulo de confinio Sancti Iohannis Grisostomi.

He was nicknamed "miliani", which means "Million" in Italian.The Italian title of his book was "The Book of Marco Polo, nicknamed 'Milione'".According to Giovanni Battista Ramusio, his fellow citizens gave him this nickname when he came back to Venice because he kept saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counted in millions.He was called Marco Milioni.[20]

Marco's nickname was used to distinguish him from his father Niccol who was nicknamed Milione.[22][23]

Marco Polo borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople.The traveller's father, Niccol, had three sons, one of which was Marco.There is no additional evidence to support the genealogy described by Ramusio.There are 26 and 27 items.

His father, Niccol Polo, was a merchant who traded with the Near East.Before Marco's birth, Niccol and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage.Niccol and Maffeo moved away from Constantinople in 1260 when they saw a political change.According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they met with the founder of the Yuan dynasty.Their decision to leave Constantinople was timely.After taking Constantinople, Michael VIII Palaiologos burned the Venetian quarter and re-established the Byzantine Empire.The Venetian citizens who were captured were blinded and many of them died on refugee ships in the Aegean Sea.

Most of the information about Marco Polo's childhood is unknown until he was fifteen years old.Marco Polo was raised by his aunt and uncle after his mother died.He received a good education, learning mercantile subjects including foreign currency, appraising, and the handling of cargo ships.His father married a woman named Floradise Polo.[28]

Marco met Niccol and Maffeo for the first time in 1269.During the rule of Doge Lorenzo Tiepolo, Marco Polo, his father, and uncle set off for Asia on a series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book.[35]

They traveled to the Persian port Hormuz on their camels.They stayed in Acre for a few months and were able to speak with the Archdeacon of Piacenza.On that occasion, the Polo family expressed their regret at the lack of a pope, because on their previous trip to China they had received a letter from the Pope, and thus had to leave for China disappointed.After 33 months of vacation, they received news that the Conclave had elected the new Pope and that he was the archdeacon of Acre.The three of them were invited by the new Pope to send his emissaries to Rome after they returned to the Holy Land.He sent the Polos as his legates to give more weight to the mission.36

They traveled overland until they arrived at the place called Cathay.Marco was 21 years old at this time.Marco was appointed as Khan's foreign emissary to India and Burma after being impressed by his intelligence and humility.He was sent on many diplomatic missions throughout his empire and in Southeast Asia, but also entertained the Khan with stories and observations about the lands he saw.Marco lived in the emperor's lands for 17 years as part of this appointment.[7]

He initially refused to let the Polos return to Europe because he appreciated their company and they became useful to him.He gave permission for the Polos to accompany the Mongol princess Kkchin, who was to become the consort of Arghun Khan, in Persia.The Polos traveled overland to Constantinople after leaving the princess.They decided to return to their home.[37]

After 24 years in Venice, they returned in 1295.They traveled over 15,000 miles.[29]

Marco Polo had his fortune converted into gemstones.The Republic of Genoa was at war with Venice.Polo was armed with a galley to join the war.He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta, not during the battle of Curzola on the Dalmatian coast.

He spent several months in prison writing a detailed account of his travels to a fellow prisoner, Rustichello da Pisa, who included tales of himself and current affairs from China.The book spread throughout Europe in manuscript form and became known as The Travels of Marco Polo.Polo's nickname was "Milione".The original title in Franco-Italian was Livres des Merveilles du Monde.It depicts the Polos' journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East, including China, India, and Japan.[46]

In August 1299, Polo was released from captivity and returned to Venice, where his father and uncle had purchased a large palazzo.The Polo family probably invested profits from trading and bringing gemstones from the East.Marco became a wealthy merchant after the company continued its activities.Marco and Maffeo probably never left Venetian provinces and never returned to the Silk Road and Asia.Niccol died before 1300.The daughter of Vitale Bador married him in 1300.They had three daughters, Fantina, Bellela, and Moreta.50

Pietro d'Abano spoke with Marco Polo about what he saw in the vault of the sky during his travels.Marco told him that during his trip to the South China Sea, he saw a star shaped like a sack, most likely a comet.There were no comets seen in Europe at the end of 1200, but there were reports of one in China and Indonesia in the 13th century.This circumstance does not appear in Polo's book.Peter D'Abano kept the drawing in his book.Pietro was given a description of the Sumatran rhinoceros and other observations by Marco Polo.[52]

He was mentioned in a document regarding the payment of taxes.His relation with Marco Polo, who in 1300 was mentioned with riots against the government, and escaped the death penalty, as well as riots from 1310 led by Bajamonte Tiepolo and Marco Querini, were from another family.Polo is mentioned again after 1305 in Maffeo's testament, which states that he became the owner of some estates of his deceased father, and in 1321, when he bought part of the family property.[28]

Polo was confined to bed due to illness.Polo was on his deathbed on January 8, 1324.His family asked the priest of San Procolo to write and certify his will.His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed as co-executrices.The church was entitled by law to a portion of his estate, and he ordered that a further sum be paid to the convent of San Lorenzo, the place where he wanted to be buried.He freed Peter, a Tartar servant who may have accompanied him from Asia, and bequeathed 100 lire of Venetian denari to him.[56]

He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, among individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and Fraternity to which he belonged.He wrote off a number of debts, including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni, San Paolo of the Order of Preachers.He ordered 220 soldi to be paid to Giovanni Giustiniani for his work.[57]

The testator only had to touch the document to make it legally valid, because the will was not signed by Polo.The Venetian law states that the day ends at sunset, so the exact date of Marco Polo's death can't be determined.The original copy of his testament is held by Biblioteca Marciana, which dates it to January 9, 1323, and gives a death date of June 1324.[58]

An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly, and the reconstruction of the original text is a matter of criticism.There are about 150 copies in various languages.There are many differences between the different copies of the same book.60

Polo and Rustichello da Pisa were both prisoners of the Genova Republic.It was written by Rustichello in Franco-Venetian.The idea was to create a handbook for merchants, a text on weights, measures and distances.[63]

The oldest surviving manuscript is heavily flavoured with Italian, and according to the Italian scholar, this "F" text is the basic original text, which he corrected by comparing it with the more detailed Italian of Giovanni Battista Ramusio.Ramusio's Italian translation first printed in 1559 is one of the early important sources.The National Library of Sweden has an Old French Polo manuscript.[65]

The Dominican brother of Marco Pipino made a translation into Latin of one of the early manuscripts.It is thought that Rustichello's text was translated into Latin for the benefit of the Dominican Order, and this helped to promote the book on a European scale.[19]

The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, based on Santaella's Castilian translation of 1503 is the first English translation.66

The published editions of Polo's book rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule.The English translation of a Latin manuscript found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo is 50% longer than other versions.The translation by R. E. Latham was published in 1959 by Penguin Books.[68]

The book begins with a description of where Prince Berke Khan lived.They went to Ukek a year later.They were invited to meet a man who had never met Europeans.They reached the seat of Kublai Khan in Beijing, China, in 1266.The brothers were given a lot of questions about the European legal and political system.He inquired about the Pope and the Church in Rome.After the brothers answered the questions he asked them to deliver a letter to the Pope, which they did.The envoy was requested to bring back the oil of the lamp.Between the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268 and the election of his successor, the Polos were delayed.Marco was able to see his father for the first time at the age of fifteen or sixteen after they returned to Venice in 1269 or 1270 to await the nomination of the new Pope.[74]

Niccol, Maffeo and Marco Polo embarked on their voyage in 1271.They traveled from Acre to Hormuz on camels.The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Road.The Polos joined a caravan of merchants who crossed paths with them.The party was attacked by bandits who used a sandstorm to ambush them.Many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved when the Polos escaped through a nearby town.When Marco was 21 years old, the Polos were welcomed into the palace by Kublai.The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275.The sacred oil from Jerusalem and papal letters were presented to their patron by the Polos.[28]

Marco and his family had a lot of knowledge and experience that was useful to Kublai.He may have become a government official because he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces.The Polos' requests to leave China were declined by Kublai Khan because they were highly respected and sought after in the Mongolian court.They were worried about returning home safe because of their close relationship with the ruler.The ruler of Persia sent representatives to China in search of a wife and asked the Polos to accompany them so they could return to Persia with the wedding party.The party sailed to the port of Singapore, then traveled north to Sumatra and around the southern tip of India before crossing the Arabian Sea to Hormuz.Only eighteen of the six hundred people in the convoy survived the two-year voyage.After reaching Hormuz, the Polos left the wedding party and traveled overland to the port of Trebizond on the Black Sea.[29]

Ronald Latham has pointed out that Polo and a professional writer of romances, Rustichello of Pisa, wrote a book together.Polo and Rustichello da Pisa were both prisoners of the Genova Republic.Between the 13th and 15th century, Franco-Venetian language was the language of culture in northern Italy.[62]

Latham argued that Rustichello glamorized Polo's accounts, and added fantastic and romantic elements that made the book a hit.The book was written in a way that was similar to Rustichello's other works, and that some passages were taken from other writings.For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes, and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romancehello had written several years earlier.Latham believed that many elements of the book, such as the Middle East and mentions of exotic marvels, may have been the work of Rustichello who was giving what medieval European readers expected to find in a travel book.[84]

Marco's story aroused differing reactions, as it was received by some with a certain disbelief.A few years after Marco's return to Venice, the Dominican father Francesco Pipino wrote a translation into Latin.Marco was defined as a "prudent, honoured and faithful man" by Francesco Pipino.Jacopo d'Acqui explained why his peers were skeptical about the book in his writings.Marco Polo told only half of what he had seen before he died.[85]

The relationship Marco Polo had with members of the Dominican Order in Venice is thought to have led to the creation of a Latin version of Rustichello's book.[19]

Dominican fathers had missions to evangelize foreign peoples.Marco's book was considered a trustworthy piece of information by Dominican missionaries in China and the Indies.The diplomatic communications between Pope Innocent IV and Pope Gregory X may have been a reason for this endorsement.There was a possibility of a Christian-Mongul alliance with an anti-Islamic function.A delegate from the Mongols was solemny baptised at the Second Council of Lyon.Pope Gregory X promulgated a new Crusade to start in 1278 in liaison with the Mongols.[90]

The book has been viewed with skepticism since it was published.The book was viewed as a romance or fable by some in the Middle Ages due to its different descriptions of a sophisticated civilisation in China to other early accounts by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine and William of Rubruck.Doubts have been raised about Marco Polo's narrative of his travels in China for example for his failure to mention the Great Wall of China, and in particular the difficulties in identifying many of the place names he used.Many have questioned whether he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, if he appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle, and whether or not he even reached China.92 and 94.

Polo's accounts of China are more detailed than those of other travellers.Despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few descriptions of irrational marvels.He made a distinction between what he had heard and what had been seen in some cases, such as mentions of Christian miracles.It is largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the traveller Ibn Battuta who confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and believed that porcelain was made from coal.95

The currencies used, salt production and revenues in Marco Polo's book are accurate and unique according to modern studies.The accuracy of such detailed descriptions is supported by archaeological evidence and Chinese records after Polo left China.His accounts are not likely to have been obtained second hand.Marco Polo noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built in Zhenjiang, China when he was there.A Chinese text from the 14th century shows how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou.The story of the princess Kkchin was confirmed by independent sources in both China and Persia.[98]

Sceptics have long wondered if Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in the book.Polo fails to mention the Great Wall of China, tea, Chinese characters, chopsticks, or footbinding, even though he describes paper money and the burning of coal.His failure to note the Great Wall of China was first raised in the middle of the 17th century, and it was thought that he might have never reached China.John W. Haeger argued that Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones.In her 1995 book Did Marco Polo Go to China?, Dr. Wood claimed that he did.Polo never went farther east than modern Iran, and there is nothing in The Book of Marvels about China that could not be obtained through reading Persian books.Wood maintains that it is more likely that Polo went to Constantinople and some of the Italian merchant colonies around the Black Sea.[101]

The points raised by sceptics such as footbinding and the Great Wall of China were countered by supporters of Polo's basic accuracy.The Great Walls were built to keep out invaders from the north, according to a historian.They note that the Great Wall was built two centuries after Marco Polo's travels, and that there were no reasons to keep any forts there.Giovanni de' Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenone were two of the Europeans who traveled to Khanbaliq during the Yuan dynasty.While ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant to the Muslim traveller who asked about it when he was in China.[101]

During Polo's time, footbinding was almost unknown among the Mongols.While the Italian missionary who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding, it is unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate, and no other foreign visitors mentioned the practice.The dainty walk of Chinese women who took very short steps was noted by Marco Polo in the Toledo manuscript.Many of the things Marco Polo did not mention, such as tea and chopsticks, were not mentioned by other travellers as well.Marco Polo's account is more extensive, more accurate and more detailed than those of other foreign travellers to China in this period.Marco Polo wanted to share his knowledge of Chinese nautical inventions with his fellow Venetians.[106]

A number of other scholars have argued that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book.Wood's book has been criticized by a number of people, including a translator and annotator of The Secret History of the Mongols.David Morgan found no evidence in the book that would convince him that Marco Polo did not go to China.The author of Marco Polo's China argues in his book that the account is much more correct and accurate than has been reported, and that it is extremely unlikely that he could have obtained all the information from second-hand sources.Wood's approach to finding mention of Marco Polo in Chinese texts is criticized by the author, who contends that Europeans had little regard for using surnames and that a direct Chinese transliteration of the name "Marco" ignores the possibility of him taking on a Chinese or even Mongol name.[109]

Jrgen Jensen recalled the meeting of Marco Polo and Pietro d'Abano in the late 13th century.Marco gave Pietro details of the observations he made on his journey.The observations are compatible with Marco's stay in China, Sumatra and the South China Sea, but not in his book of travels.

Peter Jackson, author of The Mongols and the West, said that the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China must have been settled by Haw."I regret to say that F. W.'s book falls short of the standard of scholarship that one would expect in a work of this."Her book is described as deceptive by both the author and the public at large.In the majority of cases, the questions have already been answered, she is poorly equipped in the basic tools of the trade, and her major arguments cannot endure close scrutiny.Marco Polo's credibility is supported by all the evidence.[115]

Marco Polo is thought to have exaggerated his importance in China.The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had exaggerated and lied about his status in China, while Ronald Latham thought it was a lie.[84]

Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou, according to the book.This claim has caused controversy.According to David Morgan, no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo as a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou.In the 1960s, the German historian Herbert Franke noted that all occurrences of Po-lo or Bolod were names of people from the Orient.100

Marco Polo was identified by a Chinese scholar as a courtier of the emperor who was arrested in 1274 by an imperial dignitary named Saman.Boluo was accused of walking on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, which was against the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides.Boluo was released at the request of the emperor and transferred to the northeast of China in the spring of 1275.The first mission that Marco Polo speaks about could be on that date.[118]

There is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources.The documents mention his brother, as well as the imperial dignitary Saman, who arrested the official named "Boluo".Sources say that Saman died shortly after the incident, while Xiangwei was transferred to a different location.Marco Polo moved to Hangzhou in 1284.The intention to avoid further conflicts between the two is said to be the reason for the displacements.[118]

The sinologist thought that Polo might have been an officer of the government salt monopoly, which was a position of significance that could explain the exaggeration.115

It may not be possible for a European to hold a position of power in the empire.He was not the first or the only one according to some records.Marco states in his book that he founded two Christian churches in the region of "Caigiu" and that an official named "Mar Sarchis" was a Christian bishop.The qualification of "General of Third Class" is mentioned in the local gazette.During his time as an assistant supervisor in the province of Zhenjiang, Ma Xuelijsi founded two Christian churches.It's a well-known fact that Chinese people are less trusting than foreigners in internal affairs.[118]

The idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance is contrary to what has often been said.Polo never claimed to hold high rank, such as a darughachi, who led a tumen that was normally 10,000 strong.Polo did not imply that he had led 1,000 personnel.Polo seems to state that he had been an emissary of the khan, in a position with some esteem.If Polo was a keshig, a member of the imperial guard by the same name, then this is a reasonable claim.[122]

According to the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts, he was a simple resident, a governor, and even a temporary substitute for someone else, but this is not the case.The approach to finding mention of Marco Polo in Chinese texts was objected to by Haw because it ignores the possibility of him taking on a Chinese or even Mongol name.[122]

There is a controversial claim that the three Polos gave the Mongols technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang.

Adonc distributes.freres et lor filz meser.Grant Sire, avon avech nos en nostre mesnie homes.

The two brothers and their son said that the inhabitants of the city will not be able to resist the mangonels that will be built in their place.

Marco Polo arrived in China for the first time before the siege was over, so the claim can't be true.The claim that the three Polo were present at the siege of Xiang-yang is not present in all manuscripts, but Niccol and Matteo could have made this suggestion.This claim seems to add more credibility to the story.There are 125 and 126 words.

There are a number of errors in Marco Polo's account, for example he described the bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen.He said that the city wall had twelve gates when it had only eleven.Archaeologists have pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the attempted invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281.When archaeological excavations found that the ships had only three masts, Polo wrote of five-masted ships.[128]

Marco Polo was accused by Wood of taking other people's accounts in his book, re-telling other stories as his own, or based his accounts on lost sources.The account of Polo's voyage of the princess Kkchin from China to Persia to marry the l-khn in 1293 has been confirmed by a passage in the 15th-century Chinese work.Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of his "retelling of a well-known tale".It would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din, as the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source.Wood's arguments were strongly criticized in a review by a historian.According to Rachewiltz, Marco Polo's account allows the Persian and Chinese sources to be reconciled by relaying the information that two of the three envoys sent had died.Polo provided information that was not found in either source.Marco Polo could not have learned the information from a Persian book because the only source that mentioned the princess was not finished until 1310–11.According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof that Polo is in China.[129]

Morgan writes that the "balance of probabilities" suggests that Polo really did go to China because of what The Book of Marvels has to say about it.The various anachronistic criticisms of Polo's accounts that started in the 17th century were dismissed by the author.If Marco was a liar, then he must have been an implausibly fastidious one.[134]

In 2012 a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues was released by the University of Tbingen Sinologist and historian.The shape and size of the paper, the use of seals, various denominations of paper money, as well as variations in currency usage have all been given by Western, Arab, or Persian sources.His accounts of salt production and revenues from the salt monopoly are in line with Chinese documents.Mark Elvin concludes in his introduction to the monograph that there is an "overwhelmed probability of the broad authenticity" of Polo's account.The oral transmission of the original text caused many problems.Did Polo exert political authority in the area?Elvin concludes that those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish, but that the case as a whole had now been closed.[136]

Polo's book made his journey to China the first to be widely known.Christopher Columbus was inspired by Polo's description of the Far East and wanted to visit it for himself.In three years, Bento de Gis traveled 4,000 miles across Central Asia, inspired by Polo's writings of a Christian kingdom in the east.He ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in 1605 to prove that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci called "China".[137]

The development of European cartography may have been influenced by Marco Polo's travels, eventually leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later.According to Piero Falchetta's work, Giovanni Battista Ramusio said the 1453 Fra Mauro map was partially based on the one brought from Cathay.

A fine illuminated world map, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery, was by one of the brothers who took great delight in the study of cosmography.

The family of Marco Polo drew several maps to the Far East based on the traveller's accounts.The maps were signed by Polo's daughters.Maps of his journey, as well as sea routes to Japan, Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula, the Bering Strait and even to the coastlines of Alaska, were included in the book.

There is a myth that Marco Polo imported pasta from China, however, it is actually a popular misconception that the goal of the Macaroni Journal is to promote the use of pasta in the United States.Marco Polo uses the term "lasagna" in his book, but he was already familiar with it.Prior to Marco Polo's travels to Asia, pasta had already been invented in Italy.According to the newsletter of the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association, the durum wheat was introduced by Arabs from Libya during their rule over Sicily in the late 9th century.The Marco Polo story is thought to have started in the 1920s or 30s in an advertisement for a Canadian spaghetti company.[143]

The Marco Polo sheep was named after the explorer who described it during his crossing of Pamir in 1271.Nb 2

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