# What is a line spectrum and what does it mean?

The photoelectric effect provided irrefutable evidence for the existence of the photon and thus the particle-like behavior of electromagnetic radiation, which emerged from experimentation with thermal radiation.More direct evidence was needed to verify the quantized nature of energy.Observation of the interaction of atoms with visible light provided evidence in this section.

When pure samples of individual elements are heated, a different kind of spectrum is observed.Individual isolated hydrogen atoms caused by the dissociation of H2 emit a red light when a high-voltage electrical discharge is passed through a sample of hydrogen gas.Unlike blackbody radiation, the color of the light emitted by the hydrogen atoms does not depend on the gas in the tube.A few narrow lines of particular wavelength, called a line spectrum, are observed rather than a continuous range of wavelength when the emitted light is passed through a prism.The red light emitted by hydrogen atoms is due to the fact that the most intense line in its spectrum is in the red portion of the visible spectrum.The yellow color of sodium is due to the fact that the most intense lines are in the yellow portion of the spectrum.

Classical physics was unable to explain the emission spectrum for many elements in the late 19th century.The explanation is based on the fact that only a few values of were possible in the line spectrum.Only states with certain values of energy could be allowed or allowed only if the hydrogen atom’s energy levels were quantized.A spectrum similar to blackbody radiation would have been observed if a hydrogen atom had any value of energy.

The lines observed in the visible region of the spectrum of hydrogen fit a simple equation that was shown by a Swiss mathematics teacher in 1885.

Where n is 3, 4, 5, and 6.The lines are known as the Balmer series.The result of the Rydberg equation was expanded and restated by the Swedish physicist.

There is a left and a right.

The Rydberg constant has a value of 1.09737 107 m1.

A mathematics teacher at a secondary school for girls in Switzerland, Balmer was 60 years old when he wrote the paper that made him famous.

The wavelength of the visible lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen was described by a simple equation.The wavelength of lines that would be observed in the emission spectrum of hydrogen were predicted by the equation.Scientists didn’t have a theoretical justification for an equation of this form.

A theoretical model for the hydrogen atom was proposed by a physicist in 1913.The model required only one assumption, that the electron moves in a circle around the nucleus.The atom was held together by the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electron, according to the earlier model of the atom.The idea that the electron could only occupy certain regions of space was proposed by Bohr.

The energy of an electron in a particular direction is given by classical physics.

The speed of light, the Rydberg constant, h, and c are all positive numbers, with n being the number assigned to the nucleus.The energy holding the electron and the nucleus is zero in this model.A negatively charged electron and a positively charged nucleus ion are separated when the electron is unbound from the nucleus.The circle of the state is infinite.The atom was ionized.

After escaping to the United States during World War II, he became associated with the Atomic Energy Project.

In his final years, he devoted himself to the peaceful application of atomic physics and to resolving political problems arising from the development of nuclear weapons.

More energy is needed to ionize the atom as the energy holding the electron and nucleus decreases.The lowest lying and most tightly bound is the one with n.The negative sign indicates that the electron-nucleus pair is more tightly bound.When they are near each other, the potential energy is lower.The ground state is the most stable arrangement of electrons for an element or a compound, because a hydrogen atom has the lowest possible energy.A less stable arrangement with higher potential energy is created when the electron is farther from the protons.An excited state is defined as any arrangement of electrons that is higher in energy than the ground state.When an atom in an excited state undergoes a transition to the ground state in a process called decay, it loses energy by emitting a photon.

The Delta E is the difference between the two energy levels.Substituting from the equation gives each energy value.

hcn_2- left ( -dfrac).

The arrow in Figure (PageIndex3) shows the transition from a higher energy state to a lower one.Substituting for (E) gives.

The Delta E is dfrachclambda.

There is a left and a right in dfrac1n_2.

Except for the negative sign, this is the same equation that was obtained.The negative sign in the equations indicates that energy is released when the electron moves from one place to another.The value of (Re) was calculated from fundamental constants such as the charge and mass of the electron and the same number was obtained by analyzing the emission spectrum.

The physical basis for the Balmer series of lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen is now understood.The hydrogen atoms in the sample have absorbed energy from the electrical discharge and decayed from a higher-energy excited state to a lower energy state by emitting a photon of radiation.The line is given rise to by a transition of 3 to n and 2 to 4.The intensity of the various lines in a line spectrum depends on the number of atoms in each excited state of a sample of hydrogen.More atoms are in the n 4 levels at the gas discharge tube’s temperature.The characteristic red color of a hydrogen discharge is produced by the most intense n to n transition.Other families of lines can be traced back to transitions from excited states with n > 1 to the orbit and n 3.In Figure (PageIndex4), these transitions are shown schematically.

Timekeeping using electron transitions needs to be exact in contemporary applications.The devices that control the US power grid rely on timing signals that are within a millionth of a second per day.Global positioning system (GPS) signals must be accurate to within a billionth of a second per day, which is equivalent to gaining or losing no more than one second in 1,400,000 years.It is necessary to find an event that repeats on a regular basis.

Physicists have turned to the atom to achieve accuracy.The standard for calibrating clocks is the cesium atom.cesium atoms are placed in a vacuum chamber and bombarded with microwaves.The atoms absorb enough energy to make a transition to a higher-energy state.Radiation is emitted by decay to a lower-energy state.The clock’s pendulum is served by the microwave frequency.

The duration of the cesium clock was defined in 1967.The next generation of atomic clocks will be even more accurate.The discovery of oil or minerals could be aided by the use of such devices, which would allow scientists to monitor vanishingly faint signals produced by nerve pathways in the brain.

There are lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen that correspond to transitions between excited states.The wavelength of the lowest-energy line should be calculated to three figures.What part of the spectrum does it occur in?

n1 is the number of the series.The closest in energy is the lowest-energy line.

There is a left and a right in dfrac1n_2.

The people who study spectroscopy use cm-1 instead of m-1 as a common unit.The length is proportional to energy but the Frequency is directly proportional.

They talk about energy and Frequency as equivalent.The cm-1 unit is easy to use.The visible range is from 11,000 to 25.000 cm-1 and the UV is between 25,000 and 100,000 cm 1.The units of cm-1 are called wavenumbers.The answer can be converted to cm-1.

The times are 106cancelm-1 left.

The emission line is called Lyman alpha.It is the strongest atomic emission line from the sun and drives the chemistry of the upper atmosphere of all the planets.It is completely absorbed by oxygen in the upper stratosphere, which causes it to form stratospheric ozone.

The Pfund series of lines in the emission spectrum correspond to transitions from higher excited states to the n.The wavelength of the second line in the Pfund series should be calculated.Which part of the spectrum does it lie in?

The observed emission spectrum was explained by the model of the hydrogen atom.His contributions to our understanding of atomic structure are listed below.

The electron should be restricted to a particular location.Despite a lot of tinkering, his model could not explain the emission spectrum of any element other than hydrogen.The model only worked for species with one electron: H, He+, Li2+, and so forth.Scientists need a fundamental change in their way of thinking about the electronic structure of atoms.

The emission of light by atoms in excited states is what produces the emission spectrum.An absorption spectrum can be produced by the absorption of light by ground-state atoms.

When an atom absorbs light, it is excited to a higher energy state than when it decays.

If white light is passed through a sample of hydrogen, hydrogen atoms absorb energy as an electron is excited to higher energy levels.If there is no light passing through the sample, the light forms a continuous spectrum with black lines.The wavelengths correspond to the n values of 3, n, 2, and 4.A characteristic emission spectrum and a characteristic absorption spectrum can be found in any given element.